Category Archives: Publications

The Influence of Spatial Configuration of Residential Area and Vector Populations on Dengue Incidence Patterns in an Individual-Level Transmission Model

Kang JY, Aldstadt J

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Jul 15;14(7). pii: E792.

PMID: 28714879

Abstract

Dengue is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that is endemic in tropical and subtropical countries. Many individual-level simulation models have been developed to test hypotheses about dengue virus transmission. Often these efforts assume that human host and mosquito vector populations are randomly or uniformly distributed in the environment. Although, the movement of mosquitoes is affected by spatial configuration of buildings and mosquito populations are highly clustered in key buildings, little research has focused on the influence of the local built environment in dengue transmission models. We developed an agent-based model of dengue transmission in a village setting to test the importance of using realistic environments in individual-level models of dengue transmission. The results from one-way ANOVA analysis of simulations indicated that the differences between scenarios in terms of infection rates as well as serotype-specific dominance are statistically significant. Specifically, the infection rates in scenarios of a realistic environment are more variable than those of a synthetic spatial configuration. With respect to dengue serotype-specific cases, we found that a single dengue serotype is more often dominant in realistic environments than in synthetic environments. An agent-based approach allows a fine-scaled analysis of simulated dengue incidence patterns. The results provide a better understanding of the influence of spatial heterogeneity on dengue transmission at a local scale.

 

Case Management of Dengue: Lessons Learned

Kalayanarooj S, Rothman AL, Srikiatkhachorn A

J Infect Dis. 2017 Mar 1;215(suppl_2):S79-S88.

PMID: 28403440

Abstract

The global burden of dengue and its geographic distribution have increased over the past several decades. The introduction of dengue in new areas has often been accompanied by high case-fatality rates. Drawing on the experience in managing dengue cases at the Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health in Bangkok, Thailand, this article provides the authors’ perspectives on key clinical lessons to improve dengue-related outcomes. Parallels between this clinical experience and outcomes reported in randomized controlled trials, results of efforts to disseminate practice recommendations, and suggestions for areas for further research are also discussed.

 

Immune-mediated cytokine storm and its role in severe dengue

Srikiatkhachorn A, Mathew A, Rothman AL

Semin Immunopathol. 2017 Jul;39(5):563-574.

PMID: 28401256

Abstract

Dengue remains one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases worldwide. Infection with one of the serologically related dengue viruses (DENVs) can lead to a wide range of clinical manifestations and severity. Severe dengue is characterized by plasma leakage and abnormal bleeding that can lead to shock and death. There is currently no specific treatment for severe dengue due to gaps in understanding of the underlying mechanisms. The transient period of vascular leakage is usually followed by a rapid recovery and is suggestive of the effects of short-lived biological mediators. Both the innate and the adaptive immune systems are activated in severe dengue and contribute to the cytokine production. We discuss the immunological events elicited during a DENV infection and identify candidate cytokines that may play a key role in the severe manifestations of dengue and possible interventions.

 

State-of-the-art monitoring in treatment of dengue shock syndrome: a case series

Moulton SL, Mulligan J, Srikiatkhachorn A, Kalayanarooj S, Grudic GZ, Green S, Gibbons RV, Muniz GW, Hinojosa-Laborde C, Rothman AL, Thomas SJ, Convertino VA

J Med Case Rep. 2016 Aug 24;10(1):233

PMID: 27553703

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Early recognition and treatment of circulatory volume loss is essential in the clinical management of dengue viral infection. We hypothesized that a novel computational algorithm, originally developed for noninvasive monitoring of blood loss in combat casualties, could: (1) indicate the central volume status of children with dengue during the early stages of “shock”; and (2) track fluid resuscitation status.

METHODS:

Continuous noninvasive photoplethysmographic waveforms were collected over a 5-month period from three children of Thai ethnicity with clinical suspicion of dengue. Waveform data were processed by the algorithm to calculate each child’s Compensatory Reserve Index, where 1 represents supine normovolemia and 0 represents the circulatory volume at which hemodynamic decompensation occurs. Values between 1 and 0 indicate the proportion of reserve remaining before hemodynamic decompensation.

RESULTS:

This case report describes a 7-year-old Thai boy, another 7-year-old Thai boy, and a 9-year-old Thai boy who exhibited signs and symptoms of dengue shock syndrome; all the children had secondary dengue virus infections, documented by serology and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The three boys experienced substantial plasma leakage demonstrated by pleural effusion index >25, ascites, and >20 % hemoconcentration. They received fluid administered intravenously; one received a blood transfusion. All three boys showed a significantly low initial Compensatory Reserve Index (≥0.20), indicating a clinical diagnosis of “near shock”. Following 5 days with fluid resuscitation treatment, their Compensatory Reserve Index increased towards “normovolemia” (that is, Compensatory Reserve Index >0.75).

CONCLUSIONS:

The results from these cases demonstrate a new variation in the diagnostic capability to manage patients with dengue shock syndrome. The findings shed new light on a method that can avoid possible adverse effects of shock by noninvasive measurement of a patient’s compensatory reserve rather than standard vital signs or invasive diagnostic methods.

Dynamics of Dengue Virus (DENV)-Specific B Cells in the Response to DENV Serotype 1 Infections, Using Flow Cytometry With Labeled Virions

Woda M, Friberg H, Currier JR, Srikiatkhachorn A, Macareo LR, Green S, Jarman RG, Rothman AL, Mathew A

J Infect Dis. 2016 Oct 1;214(7):1001-9

PMID: 27443614

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The development of reagents to identify and characterize antigen-specific B cells has been challenging.

METHODS:

We recently developed Alexa Fluor-labeled dengue viruses (AF DENVs) to characterize antigen-specific B cells in the peripheral blood of DENV-immune individuals.

RESULTS:

In this study, we used AF DENV serotype 1 (AF DENV-1) together with AF DENV-2 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from children in Thailand with acute primary or secondary DENV-1 infections to analyze the phenotypes of antigen-specific B cells that reflected their exposure or clinical diagnosis. DENV serotype-specific and cross-reactive B cells were identified in PBMCs from all subjects. Frequencies of AF DENV(+) class-switched memory B cells (IgD(-)CD27(+) CD19(+) cells) reached up to 8% during acute infection and early convalescence. AF DENV-labeled B cells expressed high levels of CD27 and CD38 during acute infection, characteristic of plasmablasts, and transitioned into memory B cells (CD38(-)CD27(+)) at the early convalescent time point. There was higher activation of memory B cells early during acute secondary infection, suggesting reactivation from a previous DENV infection.

CONCLUSIONS:

AF DENVs reveal changes in the phenotype of DENV serotype-specific and cross-reactive B cells during and after natural DENV infection and could be useful in analysis of the response to DENV vaccination.

Forty Years of Dengue Surveillance at a Tertiary Pediatric Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, 1973-2012

Nisalak A, Clapham HE, Kalayanarooj S, Klungthong C, Thaisomboonsuk B, Fernandez S, Reiser J, Srikiatkhachorn A, Macareo LR, Lessler JT, Cummings DA, Yoon IK

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Jun 1;94(6):1342-7

PMID: 27022151

Abstract

Long-term observational studies can provide valuable insights into overall dengue epidemiology. Here, we present analysis of dengue cases at a pediatric hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, during a 40-year period from 1973 to 2012. Data were analyzed from 25,715 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV) infection. Several long-term trends in dengue disease were identified including an increase in mean age of hospitalized cases from an average of 7-8 years, an increase after 1990 in the proportion of post-primary cases for DENV-1 and DENV-3, and a decrease in the proportion of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome cases in primary and post-primary cases over time. Exploratory mechanistic analysis of these observed trends considered changes in diagnostic methods, demography, force of infection, and Japanese encephalitis vaccination as possible explanations. Thailand is an important setting for studying DENV transmission as it has a “mature” dengue epidemiology with a strong surveillance system in place since the early 1970s. We characterized changes in dengue epidemiology over four decades, and possible impact of demographic and other changes in the human population. These results may inform other countries where similar changes in transmission and population demographics may now or may soon be occurring.

Dengue Virus (DENV) Neutralizing Antibody Kinetics in Children After Symptomatic Primary and Postprimary DENV Infection

Clapham HE, Rodriguez-Barraquer I, Azman AS, Althouse BM, Salje H, Gibbons RV, Rothman AL, Jarman RG, Nisalak A, Thaisomboonsuk B, Kalayanarooj S, Nimmannitya S, Vaughn DW, Green S, Yoon IK, Cummings DA

J. Infect. Dis. 2016 May;213(9):1428-35

PMID: 26704615

Abstract

The immune response to dengue virus (DENV) infection is complex and not fully understood. Using longitudinal data from 181 children with dengue in Thailand who were followed for up to 3 years, we describe neutralizing antibody kinetics following symptomatic DENV infection. We observed that antibody titers varied by serotype, homotypic vs heterotypic responses, and primary versus postprimary infections. The rates of change in antibody titers over time varied between primary and postprimary responses. For primary infections, titers increased from convalescence to 6 months. By comparing homotypic and heterotypic antibody titers, we saw an increase in type specificity from convalescence to 6 months for primary DENV3 infections but not primary DENV1 infections. In postprimary cases, there was a decrease in titers from convalescence up until 6 months after infection. Beginning 1 year after both primary and postprimary infections, there was evidence of increasing antibody titers, with greater increases in children with lower titers, suggesting that antibody titers were boosted due to infection and that higher levels of neutralizing antibody may be more likely to confer a sterilizing immune response. These findings may help to model virus transmission dynamics and provide baseline data to support the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

Interaction of a dengue virus NS1-derived peptide with the inhibitory receptor KIR3DL1 on natural killer cells

Townsley E, O’Connor G, Cosgrove C, Woda M, Co M, Thomas SJ, Kalayanarooj S, Yoon IK, Nisalak A, Srikiatkhachorn A, Green S, Stephens HA, Gostick E, Price DA, Carrington M, Alter G, McVicar DW, Rothman AL, Mathew A

Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2016 Mar;183(3):419-30

PMID: 26439909

Abstract

Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) interact with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands and play a key role in the regulation and activation of NK cells. The functional importance of KIR-HLA interactions has been demonstrated for a number of chronic viral infections, but to date only a few studies have been performed in the context of acute self-limited viral infections. During our investigation of CD8(+) T cell responses to a conserved HLA-B57-restricted epitope derived from dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein-1 (NS1), we observed substantial binding of the tetrameric complex to non-T/non-B lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a long-standing clinical cohort in Thailand. We confirmed binding of the NS1 tetramer to CD56(dim) NK cells, which are known to express KIRs. Using depletion studies and KIR-transfected cell lines, we demonstrated further that the NS1 tetramer bound the inhibitory receptor KIR3DL1. Phenotypical analysis of PBMC from HLA-B57(+) subjects with acute DENV infection revealed marked activation of NS1 tetramer-binding natural killer (NK) cells around the time of defervescence in subjects with severe dengue disease. Collectively, our findings indicate that subsets of NK cells are activated relatively late in the course of acute DENV illness and reveal a possible role for specific KIR-HLA interactions in the modulation of disease outcomes.

Evaluation of Cardiac Involvement in Children with Dengue by Serial Echocardiographic Studies

Kirawittaya T, Yoon IK, Wichit S, Green S, Ennis FA, Gibbons RV, Thomas SJ, Rothman AL, Kalayanarooj S, Srikiatkhachorn A

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 Jul;9(7):e0003943

PMID: 26226658

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Infection with dengue virus results in a wide range of clinical manifestations from dengue fever (DF), a self-limited febrile illness, to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) which is characterized by plasma leakage and bleeding tendency. Although cardiac involvement has been reported in dengue, the incidence and the extent of cardiac involvement are not well defined.

METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We characterized the incidence and changes in cardiac function in a prospective in-patient cohort of suspected dengue cases by serial echocardiography. Plasma leakage was detected by serial chest and abdominal ultrasonography. Daily cardiac troponin-T levels were measured. One hundred and eighty one dengue cases were enrolled. On the day of enrollment, dengue cases that already developed plasma leakage had lower cardiac index (2695 (127) vs 3188 (75) (L/min/m2), p = .003) and higher left ventricular myocardial performance index (.413 (.021) vs .328 (.026), p = .021) and systemic vascular resistance (2478 (184) vs 1820 (133) (dynes·s/cm5), p = .005) compared to those without plasma leakage. Early diastolic wall motion of the left ventricle was decreased in dengue cases with plasma leakage compared to those without. Decreased left ventricular wall motility was more common in dengue patients compared to non-dengue cases particularly in cases with plasma leakage. Differences in cardiac function between DF and DHF were most pronounced around the time of plasma leakage. Cardiac dysfunction was transient and did not require treatment. Transient elevated troponin-T levels were more common in DHF cases compared to DF (14.5% vs 5%, p = 0.028).

CONCLUSIONS: Transient left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction was common in children hospitalized with dengue and related to severity of plasma leakage. The functional abnormality spontaneously resolved without specific treatment. Cardiac structural changes including myocarditis were uncommon.